Overall, only 39 porcupines were infested by four species of ticks and five of fleas. Although the crested porcupine has been confirmed as a “generalist” species in terms of food selection, with adaptations to dig underground storage organs, a strong preference for fruits and epigeal parts of plants was detected in our study. Out of 537 individuals from 15 small mammal species captured, 4 species were recorded from urban, 13 from semi-urban, and 11 from recreational forest sites. The remaining species of both hard ticks (Rhipicephalus bursa, Pholeoixodes hexagonus, and Ixodes ventalloi) and fleas (Paraceras melis, Ctenocephalides canis, Dasypsyllus gallinulae, and Hystrichopsylla talpae), all with prevalence lower than 5 %, could be due to den sharing with other vertebrates, mainly carnivores such as, e.g., red foxes and badgers. Other porcupine species live in Africa, Europe, and Asia. Both captured and road-killed individuals were checked for fleas and ticks. This forest has undergone rapid deforestation for agricultural purposes. which shows 95% and 70% prevalence in JR and CM respectively. Lo studio, corredato da 38 tabelle di rilievi, 1 figura e una Carta della vegetazione in scala 1:25.000, mette in evidenza la notevole diversità di tipi ecologico-floristici esistenti nel Parco, esaltando gli scopi conservazionistici, didattici e scientifici che ne hanno giustificato la creazione ad opera della Regione Toscana. Captured crested porcupines were sedated according to a standard protocol, ... Crested porcupines were caught in home-made metal box traps (40 × 50 × 140 cm), baited with fruits and vegetables (plums, apples, carrots, potatoes) and kept active for at least seven nights a month (Lovari et al. African crested porcupines eat tubers, bark, bulbs, fallen fruit and cultivated root crops. Its parasite fauna is currently poorly known and limited to few anecdotal observations. fruits, which do not require digging). Reduced travel distances for deer darted with TX indicate that deer became recumbent sooner, resulting in increased deer recovery rates and decreased person-hour requirements. Group meals can be catered for, please phone before your visit. During these two reproductions, the previous litter stayed in the natal family group as a sub-adult after the next juvenile was born. Mean adult dose was (+/- SE) 7.24 +/- 0.37 mg/kg (74.0 +/- 3.0 mg/individual). These infections are thought to be transmitted through blood-feeding arthropod vectors such as ticks, fleas and lice. My results on individually marked porcupines showed that, when hunting with dogs occurred, a displacement of home range arises towards areas providing easily accessible food resources (i.e. The results of this study are illustrated in 38 releve tables, 1 figure and 1 vegetation map 1:25,000. Wildlife managers should therefore evaluate the use of a small number of specialized dogs for hunting in management and conservation plans, particularly in areas characterized by the presence of endangered and protected species. Please note that we do not accept cheque payment on the gate (with the exception of school groups). The family members used the same burrow site almost every day, and their home ranges largely overlapped. Undesirable side effects of excessive salivation and maintenance of muscle tone were readily controlled by combining ketamine hydrochloride with other drugs. On the other hand, porcupines are unusual, as their "spring" peak of births in Central Italy falls actually in mid-winter (i.e. Mean induction and recovery times were 7.2 ± 1.4 minutes and 144 ± 35 minutes, respectively. Moreover, these models are commonly compartment population-based, describing simplified systems with only one DH and one IH species. Animals were trapped using. Five new phytosociological associations have been recognized in the rich mosaic of plant communities which compose the Park vegetation: Teucrio-Juniperetum phoeniceae, on coast calcareous cliffs; Carici (extensae) - Schoenetum nigricantis, in shallow salt depressions among the dunes; Phillyreo-Ericetum multiflorae, on consolidated dunes with cultivated pines; Phillyreo-Juniperetum phoeniceae, on consolidated dunes alternated with marshes; Crithmo-Limonietum multiformis, on the coast cliffs immediately facing the sea. The purpose of this study is to detect the presence of Bartonella species from tick samples collected from small mammals in mangrove forests of Peninsular Malaysia. In Malaysia, focus has been primarily given to the Leptospira prevalence in rodents per se, but there is lack of information on the microhabitat structure of the outbreak areas. This chapter offers essential drug information for a wide range of rodents, including naked mole rats, prehensile‐tailed porcupines, Brazilian porcupines, and North American porcupines in an easy‐to‐consult format. Direct paternal care, such as grooming the juvenile, was also observed. As with all porcupine species, the African crested porcupine is covered in quills which it pushes in to potential threats – it is a myth that they are able to fire their quills out…  Instead they will thrust or back them in to an assailant thus driving them in to the skin and muscle. Two tick individuals from Dermacentor auratus and Haemaphysalis hystricis collected from Rattus tiomanicus (host), were PCR-positive for Bartonella DNA amplification. Intepretations of this behaviour are discussed. However at our park we also have a white variation of the African crested porcupine where all fur and quills are completely white. Behavior and Habitat Porcupines occupy a short range of habitats in tropical and temperate parts of Asia, Southern Europe, Africa, and North and South America. 1-2 young are born after a gestation period of 90-112 days, females typically give birth only once a year, in a grass-lined chamber within a burrow system. Doses between 9 and 11 mg/kg resulted in a mean (+/- SD) induction time of 3.2 +/- 1.3 min and a mean (+/- SD) immobilization time of 44.2 +/- 19.5 min. Tiletamine HCl and zolazepam HCl seems to be an effective combination of drugs for immobilizing porcupines as long as sufficient time is allowed for recovery. Hunting pressure increases the perception of predation risk in ungulates and hares and may force them to create clumped groups within protected areas. Kidney samples were extracted from selected individuals, for screening of pathogenic Leptospira spp. During the day porcupines preferred covered habitats; at night, crop foragers spent 42.5 % of active fixes in the ecotone, 28.5 % in fields or fallows and 28.0 % in the woods, while natural foragers stayed mostly in covered habitats (69 %) rarely in ecotone (19 %) and open habitat (12 %). The crested porcupine Hystrix cristata is undergoing a marked range expansion in Italy, and it is reaching the northern regions, where it was historically absent. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS fragments demonstrated that the sequences from ticks were closely related to Bartonella phoceensis, a species that has been reported from black rats (Rattus rattus) in Australia. While opening up during the COVID-19 social distancing measures we have limited pre-booked availability only. Bacteria of the genus Bartonella have been known as emerging zoonotic pathogens Numerous species of small mammals have been reported to play a role as a suitable reservoir to many pathogenic Bartonella. Seven rodent species were tested positive for pathogenic Leptospira from all areas. The African crested porcupine lives in hilly, rocky habitats in Sub-Saharan Africa, North Africa and Italy. The low richness in dominant ectoparasite species, built up by locally acquired generalist taxa, provides support to the allochthonous origin of this rodent in Italy. The ecology of parasites with both definitive (DH) and obligatory intermediate hosts (IH) is characterized not only by host-parasite interactions, but also by multifaceted interactions between DH a. The most frequent species was the flea Pulex irritans (25 %), whose prevalence peaked in winter probably because of optimal abiotic conditions in the porcupine's den. An adult male-biased parasitism for ticks has been detected, suggesting a possible role of testosterone related immune-depressive effect. The drug doses are sorted by type and arranged alphabetically. Recreational forests recorded the highest prevalence with 19.4% (n = 93), followed by urban, 16.6% (n = 163) and semi-urban sites with 9.8% (n = 133). ticket purchase required. Urban areas not only provide wildlife with new ecological niches, in terms of food availability, human protection and den sites but also they increase the possibility of conflict with man. Company Address: Wingham Wildlife Park 2008 Ltd, Rusham Road, Wingham, Kent, CT3 1JL. The African crested porcupine is usually found in rocky, hill country but they are very adaptable animals who make their home in most types of environment, though there are a few exceptions. Porcupines evolved in Asia and Africa with a number of competing grazing herbivores, as well as in presence of a heavy predation risk leading to development of quills. When an individual was captured, it was sedated before manipulation, according to a standard protocol (. The second most prevalent species was the generalist tick Ixodes ricinus (21 %). 39. Two different aspects of the Park vegetation predominate, quite dissimilar from the landscape and geomorphological point of view: the Uccellina hills, covered by Mediterranean evergreen vegetation, and the Ombrone coastal plain, covered partly by dunes of recent origin and partly by marshes of both fresh and salt water. Our individuals do not have pink eyes and as such are not albinos but leucistics (lacking in black pigmentation). This is a nocturnal rodent that lives on the ground and is found in the northern coast of Africa south to Tanzania and northern Congo. Porcupines preferred steep, compact soils covered with dense vegetation, for denning. Echinococcus multilocularis (Em) is a tapeworm parasite of wild and domestic canids (DH) whose eggs are shed in the environment through feces and if accidentally ingested they can infect IHs (mostly rodents), or even humans (in which can cause alveolar echinococcosis, AE, a fatal disease). Porcupines are most common in hilly, rocky country, but they can adapt to most habitats — excessively moist forests and the most barren of deserts seem to be the only exceptions. This combination (Zoletil 100) was used during a study on behavioural ecology of the crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata) in a Mediterranean coastal area (Maremma Regional Park, Tuscany, Italy). Many plant associations, still present in these dunes and marshes, are the precious witness of types of vegetation once widespread in the Italian Peninsula but relictual and rare nowdays owing to land reclamation and urban impact. Natural resource professionals must consider cost, effectiveness, human safety, and animal welfare when selecting an appropriate immobilant. Forest re-expansion in Italy may thus have promoted the range expansion by this species during the last 40 years. Conservation. Analysis of their burrow use, home range, and behaviour strongly suggested that five of the observed individuals formed a family group consisting of an adult male–female pair and their three offspring, two of which were born during the study period. The presence of hunting dogs increases the predation risk perception by potential prey species, which in turn respond by altering their spatio-temporal behaviour. It provides dosing amounts for all important drugs, including antimicrobials, antifungals, analgesia, anesthesia, sedation, antiparasitics, and other. Porcupines can be found on rocky areas up to 3,700 meters (12,100 feet) high. In contrast, the other two individuals never used the burrow sites of this family group. 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