Ans: No, because vascular bundles are scattered in monocot. Chloroplasts of maize ( Zea mays ) leaves differentiate into specific bundle sheath (BS) and mesophyll (M) types to accommodate C4 photosynthesis. iv. However, overexpression of PEPC in transgenic rice may cause a decrease in CO2 fixation and an increase in respiration under light conditions [46]. ‘Kranz’ means ‘wreath’ and is a reflection of the arrangement of cells. Rich PEP carboxylase. a. RuBisCo, PEPCase b. PEPCase, RuBisCo ... RuBisCO is the most abundant enzyme in plants only. The activities of nitrate-assimilating enzymes, except for nitrate reductase, were high enough to account for the proposed in vivo rates of nitrate assimilation. Kranz anatomy requires many intercellular movements of intermediates between the MCs and BSCs. When the leaf tissue of C3 plants is viewed under a microscope. The raw pulp of A. vera contains approximately 98.5% water, while the mucilage or gel consists of about 99.5% water (Eshun and He, 2004). (a)    RuBP Carboxylase                       Fig. Thus the efficiency of photosynthesis and biomass productivity may be increased either by changing the ratio of CO2 to oxygen at the catalytic site or by changing the kinetic activity of the enzyme. Q14. NADH-glutamate dehydrogenase was concentrated in the bundle sheath cells, while NADPH-glutamate dehydrogenase was localized in both mesophyll and bundle sheath cells. How do they adapt to carry out photosynthesis under these conditions?\ In each case the parenchymatic cells are characteristically larger than the mesophyll cells. For operation of C 4 pathway, both mesophyll and bundle-sheath cells are required. Energy required for ATP synthesis in PSII comes from Ans: a. Photorespiration Plants that utilize the C4 variant of photosynthesis biochemically concentrate CO2 in specialized bundle sheath cells within the leaf. The mechanism which results in the differential gene expression in the two different leaf cell types of a C4 plant has been studied in detail in maize. b. In addition these plants show tolerance to higher temperatures. In the C3 pathway, atmospheric CO2 enters the leaf via the stomata, diffuses as a gas to the chloroplast and is assimilated there directly through carboxylation using ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) as the acceptor by RuBisCO, in the photosynthetic C-reduction cycle also known as the Calvin cycle (Figures 1(a) and 2). In defining leaf source strength, its photosynthesis rate is only one parameter of interest. A process is occurring throughout the day, in ‘X’ organism. 11.8. Plant mannans have β(1-4) linkages, (2S,3S,4R,5S,6S)-6-[(2R,3R,4R,5S,6R)-6-[(2R,3S,4R,5S,6R)-5-acetamido-6-[(2R,3R,4R,5S,6R)-4-acetyloxy-6-[(2R,3R,4R,5S,6R)-4-acetyloxy-6-[(2R,3R,4R,5S,6S)-4-acetyloxy-5-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)-6-methoxyoxan-3-yl]oxy-5-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-3-yl]oxy-5-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-3-yl]oxy-4-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-3-yl]oxy-4-acetyloxy-5-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-3-yl]oxy-4-acetyloxy-3-[(2R,3S,4R,5R,6R)-4-acetyloxy-5-[(2R,3S,4R,5R,6R)-4-acetyloxy-3-hydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)-5-methoxyoxan-2-yl]oxy-3-hydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxy-5-hydroxyoxane-2-carboxylate, Acemannan is a constituent of leaf juice of Aloe. All forms of PEPC also differ from RUBISCO in that the carbon substrate utilised is bicarbonate rather than carbon dioxide. (c) RuBP carboxylase and PEP carboxylase nomenclature of 3 – phospho-D-glycerate carboxylase – E.C. Calvin pathway in C 4 plants takes place only in bundle sheath cells (because RuBisCO is present) but does not take place in the mesophyll cells because lack of RuBisCO enzyme in mesophyll cells of C 4 plants like maize, sorghum, sugarcane, Jowar, Euphorbia, Atriplex, Anthraquinones in fresh plants are present in reduced form called anthranols. C) ... RUBISCO enzyme is absent in mesophyll cells … Differences between Mesophyll and Bundle Sheath Cells and Chloroplasts in C4 Plants (Mesophyll vs Bundle Sheath Chloroplasts: A Comparison Table)The C4 cycle or Hatch and Slack pathway of dark reaction of photosynthesis are characterized by two structurally and functionally different chloroplasts in their leaves. 2003; Rogers et al. Ans: (b) Green light range is least effective in photosynthesis. What are the important events and end products of the light reaction? These are named in the sequence of their discovery, and not in the sequence in which they function during the light reaction. The UV component of the spectrum is harmful to many organisms while not all the colour components of the visible spectrum are available for marine plants living at different depths of the ocean. The advantage here is that a very efficient carbon-capturing enzyme, PEP carboxylase, is present in mesophyll cells to collect great quantities of C[O.sub.2] and feed it into bundle sheath cells surrounding the vascular system. Although the heavier 13C isotope has a natural abundance of ~1% in the atmosphere, when CO2 availability is not the limiting factor for primary production, photosynthesis discriminates against the heavier isotope with the result that carbon-fixed plant biomass is relatively depleted in 13C. 4 intermediate species may be developed and Slack pathway of fumarase is bundle sheath cells are rich in which enzyme with the sheath! And enhance our service and tailor Content and ads go through the or... 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