A few man-days of work each season has largely eliminated most of the knotweed that was previously growing on the upper bank closest to the Bikeway and helped maintain control of the recurring growth on the lower bank adjoining the wetlands. Since 2002, stewardship of AGM has been provided by the Friends of Arlington’s Great Meadows. Let cut canes of Japanese knotweed dry out for a week or so, then burn them in a controlled setting such as a fire pit. Knotweeds. Gozart, Casey. Skill Level: Intermediate. The main advantage of this form of control is that, once recognised, an effective natural enemy provides control of the pest indefinitely, without further cost or intervention. It offers targeted treatment, there are no drift concerns, application is not weather-dependent, and insects feeding on flowers (most effective spray time is during flowering) are not unintentionally sprayed. Ideally landscaping provides not only aesthetic improvements, but protects and restores the existing systems that sustain us. In some instances, it’s by species already on the site or adjacent to the site; in too many instances, it’s by species that are brought into the site through nursery material, hay bales, mulch, or loam. Knotwood re-growth after first treatment. In the spring of 2009, the dead knotweed canes were cleared, and the site was planted with one-gallon pots containing two varieties of switchgrass, ‘Shenandoah’ and the straight species, and daylilies along the edge. The overall goal is to determine suitability of several insects as biological control agents. The major challenge the Friends face if the experimental effort they began six years ago is to succeed over the long haul is to develop and maintain a significant volunteer corps of more than just a few who can carry on the work on a sustainable basis without risk of fatigue or burnout. For large stands, such as that at Exit 14, the injection method is too time-consuming. Two experimental plots located in the center of the test area were initially excavated, then covered with black plastic in the spring of 2005. Observation in the year following treatment found that most of the small, isolated clumps of knotweed in planting beds were eradicated. In that case, they will be mowed. Although invasive plants abound in many areas of AGM, during the last six years the Friends have focused invasive management efforts in a test area along the Bikeway, about 100 yards in length, where a massive stand of knotweed, apparently introduced during construction of the bikeway, had grown up to block the view of the wetland from spring through fall. A decision was made to plant switchgrass as part of the two-year contract. The first was uncovered at the end of 2006, after remaining under wraps for a little over a year and a half. Japanese knotweed is considered one of the most damaging weeds in the United Get ecological news and event updates in your inbox. In the final assessment of treatment, the injection method proved to be an effective means of applying an herbicide to eradicate small clumps of knotweed. Control of Japanese knotweed is laborious and expensive. Read More. Small shoots of knotweed continue to persist, but so far, the switchgrass is holding its own. Japanese knotweed is legally prohibited in Michigan. The inability of groundcovers and mosses to grow beneath the dense canopy of knotweed results in bare soils, leaving banks susceptible to erosion and causing siltation in stream beds, again, altering fish habitat. As land becomes unstable and costly to restore, knotweed can decrease property values. Step 1: Wearing appropriate safety gear, dilute the Cornerstone1:1 with water in a spray bottle. The key to our approach was to understand the plant, in order to control it. Designed by Dr Eric Connelly and JKSL, the method does not use any chemicals, and therefore leaves the lowest possible on-site footprint where it is used. control methods to limit the growth of Japanese knotweed in the UK. As a targeted application, the injection gun was considered to have the potential to eradicate new knotweed populations without impacting adjacent, desirable plants. The contract began with herbicide treatment in September of 2007. Those plants that were more tenacious and could not be uprooted in the first volunteer effort, as well as remnants of rhizomes from the plants that were successfully uprooted, have continued to generate new growth. GOV.WALES uses cookies which are essential for the site to work. The contract included planting in various locations and a small-scale experiment to test the effectiveness of selectively applying an herbicide (glyphosate) with an injection gun to eradicate knotweed in planting beds. Treatment without herbicides is environmentally safer and avoids the hassles of permitting and the need for licensed applicators. However, controlling the spread of knotweed by humans may be even more difficult than eradicating knotweed from a site. This in turn affects water chemistry and fish habitat. The local control and eradication of an invasive species, however, is achievable with adequate aftercare and re-establishment of a native plant community. Identification/Habitat Japanese knotweed is a dense growing shrub reaching heights of 10 feet and looks like a bamboo. For communities that rely on fishing for tourism and income, knotweed infestations along waterways can result in economic loss by reducing fish populations. Gozart, Casey. Knotweeds (Polygonum spp.) We’re also part of The LK Group of companies, providing expertise in a range of sectors within the environmental industry. (Healthy knotweed is virtually impossible to uproot by hand.) The concentration of glyphosate required is very high: 4ml to 5ml of 100% glyphosate injected into each stem. FRIENDS OF ARLINGTON’S GREAT MEADOWS: Management of Knotweed without Herbicides. Humans also spread knotweed to new locations through the transport of rhizome fragments in loam and mulch. It’s not a true bamboo; it’s an aggressive member of the buckwheat family. Invasive Species - (Fallopia japonica) Prohibited in Michigan Japanese knotweed is a perennial shrub that can grow from 3 - 10 feet high. Unfortunately, this length of encapsulation does not seem to have been sufficient to completely eradicate the knotweed. Going forward, the Friends hope to achieve this goal drawing on high school community service programs as well as neighborhood residents and Bikeway enthusiasts. Read More. Her responsibilities include design, design review, and construction services for landscape restoration on transportation projects, including upland restoration and wetland and stream bank mitigation. The results that the Friends have achieved in AGM demonstrate that knotweed can successfully be controlled, weakened, and possibly even eliminated, without the use of herbicides. All vegetative waste, including both knotweed canes and root masses, has been disposed of in compost piles on-site, eliminating the possibility of infesting new sites. Both switchgrass and daylilies are fairly drought tolerant, requiring little or no irrigation for establishment. We certainly can’t address all invasive plant populations in this way, nor, given the persistence of invasive plants, can we necessarily expect these designed landscapes to last any longer than a garden once the maintenance stops. Rotting rhizomes in “Cut, Cut, Cut” area. We don’t want to use anything that will affect our water, wells, or wildlife. — P.D.S., Agawam, MA. Since 2005, the Friends have used two experimental techniques in an attempt to eliminate knotweed from this area. Unless pulled or re-sprayed, knotweed re-growth will likely overtake the daylilies. This section has remained largely knotweed-free for the last two years. Over the course of the treatment period, project managers found that the injection method, while effective, has limitations. Of all the invasive species, Japanese Knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum), once established, is one of the most difficult to manage and eradicate. Overview. Follow-up monitoring is necessary and re-treatment should be expected, particularly for larger clumps. Managing knotweed requires both on-site control as well as taking steps to prevent spreading it to new locations. All Rights Reserved. Japanese knotweed is easy to spot any time of year: its round, green-speckled, red-brown, inch-thick, hollow stems are thick and woody, standing tall even during the winter. The family name of Polygonaceae is derived from the Greek words, “Poly” meaning many, and “goni” meaning knee or joint. Both approaches the Friends have taken, however – particularly the longer-term “Cut, Cut, Cut” method – are extremely labor-intensive and thus heavily dependent on the willingness of volunteers to contribute significant efforts over a sustained period of time to work that can be thankless, dirty, and at times downright Sisyphean. Eco-Answers from the Pros: Do I Need Mulch with Groundcover. Clark County Weed Management, Lewis River Knotweed Control Pilot Project Reports 2005 and 2006 (www.co.clark.wa.us/weed/documents.html). Tara Mitchell is a landscape architect with Massachusetts Department of Transportation. Knotweed sprouts were manually pulled in the spring, and they were pulled again and spot treated with herbicide later in the season. For larger populations, cut the plants in late June or early July, and then treat the re-growth with a foliar spray of a systemic herbicide in late August or early September. The flowers are arranged in spikes near the end of the stems that are small, numerous and creamy white in color. Arlington’s Great Meadows “before” condition – 2004. If the knotweed control failed, the use of herbaceous species allowed for the site to be easily mowed. Clearly, management of knotweed is a difficult undertaking. The brochure also outlines some of the methods that can be used to control knotweed and where to go for more … Arlington’s Great Meadows (AGM) is a 183-acre tract of open land owned by the Town of Arlington and located in neighboring East Lexington. Japanese Knotweed is also commonly Managing Japanese Knotweed Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum) is an imposing herbaceous perennial that is commonly called 'bamboo'. Control of invasive plants in wetlands is subject to the Massachusetts Wetlands Protection Act; check with the local conservation commission before implementing control measures. Total Time: 2 hrs. It is also why it is so often seen lining waterways, roadways, and bike paths. During a single workday in the fall of 2008, volunteers were able to uproot approximately 80% of the knotweed plants in the “Cut, Cut, Cut” area, including a significant portion of their rhizomes. Add enough dye so you will be able to tell where you have treated. The effort and the intent behind these two projects put them more in line with gardening than with what is typical for maintaining minimally managed landscapes such as roadsides, bike path corridors, or reservations. For larger populations, cut the plants in late June or early July, and then treat the re-growth with a foliar spray of a systemic herbicide in late August or early September. It is illegal to possess or introduce this species without a permit from the Michigan Department of Agriculture, and Rural Development except to have it identified or in conjunction with control efforts. Several methods have been employed to control Japanese knotweed on Mass Audubon wildlife sanctuaries. The problem: The garden is still battling Japanese knotweed, an invasive species that grows quickly and is difficult to get rid of. Identify Japanese knotweed. We are The Invasive Plant Company, industry experts in the delivery of successful, cost-effective solutions for the control and eradication of Japanese Knotweed and other invasive plant species. Do NOT bring orphaned or injured wildlife to Mass Audubon wildlife sanctuaries. Minimal control of knotweed by pulling and spot treatment (depending on availability of applicator) is planned for another two years by which time the switchgrass should be dense and well-established. It grows in dense patches to heights of 10 feet, on sites ranging from strip mine spoil to shaded streambanks. One of the most frustrating aspects of landscaping is watching new plantings get overtaken by invasive plants. Japanese knotweed is native to eastern Asia and was first introduced into North America in the late 1800s. However, as FoAGM’s project demonstrates, it requires physical labor several times over the growing season and over the course of many years. John Bartenstein, a resident of Lexington, has been a member of the Friends of Arlington’s Great Meadows Steering Committee since 2003. are invasive perennials, with four species found in British Columbia: Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica); Bohemian knotweed (Fallopia x bohemica); Giant knotweed (Fallopia sachalenensis); and Himalayan knotweed (Polygonum polystachyum). The loss of leaf litter and woody debris results in a loss of shelter for fish and invertebrates. Humans not only spread knotweed by moving rhizomes from place to place, but our management practices may also be causing infestations to expand more rapidly. As of August 2011, the switchgrass is establishing well. However, this difference could have been due to the difficulty of spraying full-grown knotweed (6-8 feet in height) rather than the effectiveness of the injection method. The stems have a fine white coating that rubs off easily. It invades a wide variety of habitats and forms dense stands that crowd out other plants. Therefore, the strategy is to use the most cost-effective treatment in the short term (herbicides) combined with planting for restoration. Once introduced to a site, knotweed easily out-competes other vegetation to create extensive mono-stands, altering native or otherwise stable vegetative communities and habitat. Using living organisms to control pests in this way is known as biological or natural control. Once control was underway, the project managers realized that restoration of Exit 14 would be necessary to repair the site and help with continued control of the knotweed. Donations to Mass Audubon are tax-deductible to the full extent provided by law. Label bottle. Two separate projects, one by the Massachusetts Department of Transportation (MassDOT) and another by Friends of Arlington’s Great Meadows (FoAGM), are using very different strategies to restore small areas of knotweed-infested land. Biological control is a cost effective, ecologically sound, and sustainable approach to managing widespread weeds. As such areas inevitably require foliar follow-up treatment, the cost and time spent on injection is probably not worth the effort. Chemical treatment is the only viable control. Every year, the Parks Division and contract crews remove non-native invasive plants such as Japanese knotweed, garlic mustard, black swallow-wort, glossy buckthorn and tree of heaven from public open spaces. John can be reached at jcblex@verizon.net, and additional information about Arlington’s Great Meadows can be found at www.foagm.org. The 2004 East Fork Knotweed Control Project: Results Data, May 2005. The infrequent cutting of knotweed canes, which is typically the practice along highways or other minimally managed land (cutting only when it becomes problematic), instead of weakening the plants, may actually stimulate lateral shoot growth, increasing the spread on-site and to adjacent sites. Treatment with systemic herbicide can be effective, but you might need to treat repeatedly; another possibility is stem injection or application of a systemic herbicide to freshly cut stems, though this is labor intensive. Japanese Knotweed is exceedingly difficult to eradicate by traditional means (it will sprout through asphalt). This perennial herb grows up to 10 feet tall, with heart-shaped leaves and white flowers. Formerly a partner at the Boston law firm of Ropes & Gray, John now has his own law practice in Lexington, specializing in environmental litigation, and is active in Lexington affairs as a Town Meeting Member and member of the Town finance committee. As with Poison Ivy, Glyphosate (Round Up) is the product of choice for Japanese Knotweed, and the timing is the critical factor in successful control. It is hoped that continued repeated cutting will eventually weaken the relatively few remaining healthy plants and allow them to be removed as well. FoAGM have been managing knotweed with volunteers and no herbicide at a site along the Minuteman Bikeway in Lexington, MA since 2004. Identification Habit: Japanese knotweed is a perennial, herbaceous shrub The second, known as “Cut, Cut and Pull” or “Cut, Cut, Cut,” has involved repeated cutting of the growing stalks during successive growing seasons with the goal of interrupting the process by which energy created by photosynthesis in the leaves is transmitted to the rhizomes for storage, thereby weakening the plant. Biocontrols are species selected from an invasive species’ … Prevent spread of Japanese knotweed. 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